Nucleotides / Lipids




Base Ribonucleoside


  (Base + Ribose) (Base + Ribose + Phos.)
Adenine(A) Adenosine Adenosine 5'-monophosphate(AMP)
Guanine(G) Guanosine Guanosine 5'-monophosphate(GMP)
Cytosine(C) Cytidine Cytidine 5'-monophosphate(CMP)
Uracil(U) Uridine

Uridine 5'-monophosphate(UMP)



A "Ribonucleoside", A "Deoxyribonucleoside", A "Ribonucletide"




Ribonucleotides are the Monomeric Units of Nucleic Acids

Nucleotides (ribonucleotides) can be linked sequentially to form nucleic acids (store and transmit genetic information).

Nucleotide Derivatives:

Many biosynthetic reactions in carbohydrate metabolism require nucleotide derivatives.

i.e. Glucose-1-phosphate + ATP ----> ADP-glucose


Large group of biomolecules soluble only in hydrophobic (non-polar) solvents.

Can be subdivided into:

fatty acids.



Fatty Acids:

-have an acidic head group and a long hydrocarbon tail.

-saturated (no -C=C-), unsaturated (-C=C-), polyunsaturated

Some Common Fatty Acids:

Myristic CH3(CH2)12COOH

Palmitic CH3(CH2)14COOH

Oleic CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH

Linoleic CH3(CH2)3(CH2CH=CH)2(CH2)7COOH

Linolenic CH3(CH2CH=CH)3(CH2)7COOH

Arachidonic CH3(CH2)3(CH2CH=CH)4(CH2)3COOH

Triacylglycerol Formation: storage form of fatty acids

Glycerol + Palmitic Acid (x3)


Most prevalent class of lipids in membranes.


Phospholids can have one of their oxygens on the phosphate group attached to:

Choline -O-CH2CH2N(CH3)3

Ethanolamine -O-CH2CH2NH3

Serine -O-CH2CH(+NH3)(CO2-)


Dipalmitoyl Phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), "Lecithin"



Clinical Correlate: Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome

-In utero, the developing fetus exists in a fluid environment, the lungs are collapsed (oxygenation occurs across the placenta).

-At birth the newborn is suddenly exposed to air, the lungs must expand and fill w/ air.

-Because of the high surface tension, caused by H-bonding of water molecules, this requires a significant amount of energy.

-The energy barrier is decreased with Lung Surfactant: phospholipids, primarily DPPC (Lecithin) and proteins. These amphiphilic compounds form "sheets" in an aqueous environment reducing the surface tension between water molecules and decreasing the energy barrier.

-This surfactant prevents lung collapse in newborns as well as adults.

-Premature infants are deficient in surfactant.

-Hyaline Membrane Disease is defined as progressive respiratory failure in premature infants caused by inadequate surfactant and structurally immature lungs.

-Survanta is an artificial surfactant comprised of bovine lung extract containing phospholipids and proteins, with added lecithin.

-When administered to premature infants it mimics the surface tension lowering properties of natural lung surfactant -----> allowing CO2to escape the lungs and oxygenation of the blood.

© Dr. Noel Sturm 2020

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