Glucose Transport:

1. You eat causing blood sugar to rise, this is known as the "Fed" state.

2. The liver signals the pancreas to release Insulin, a hormone responsible for utilizing blood glucose.

Insulin-Insensitive: uptake of glucose by the liver, brain and RBC is maximally active in the absence of insulin, insulin-insensitive. Since glucose reaches the liver before it signals the pancreas to release insulin it is important that the liver function independently of insulin. -----> prevents hyperglycemia.

Insulin-Sensitive: associated with glucose promoting pancreatic release of insulin.

Pathways of the Carbohydrate System:

Glycolysis: splits glucose to pyruvate, which can be converted to lactate.

Gluconeogenesis: converts pyruvate to glucose.

Glycogenesis: synthesis of glycogen, carbohydrate fuel storage form.

Glycogenolysis: breakdown of glycogen.

Pentose Phosphate Pathway (PPP): produces NADPH for cell biosynthesis.

Citric Acid Cycle: converts Acetyl CoA to CO2 and ENERGY


-lysis: splits

-genesis: creates


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