Homework 7 (Due: Dec. 7, 2005)


1. Describe the general structural features of glycogen.

2. List the general features of the steps in glycogenolysis (degradation) and glycogenesis (synthesis).

3. Discuss the allosteric regulation of glycogen phosphorylase by AMP, glucose and glucose-6-phosphate.

4. Discuss the allosteric regulation of glycogen synthase by glucose-6-phosphate.


Gluconeogenesis / Pentose Phosphate Pathway

1. Compare the functions of the oxidative and non-oxidative branches of the pentose phosphate pathway.

2. Discuss the roles of NADPH and ribose-5-phosphate produced by the pentose phosphate pathway and how the cell meets variable needs for these substances.

3. Identify the enzymes of glutathione metabolism and the relationship of this metabolism to the pentose pathway and protection of the cell against oxidants.

4. Identify gluconeogenic precursors, products and enzymes and their general pathways of metabolism.

5. Describe the Cori and glucose-alanine cycles, and their relationship to gluconeogenesis.


Electron Transport

1. Identify by name the major complexes of the respiratory chain, list their components and inhibitors and identify which are sites for ATP production.

2. Define the inorganic phosphate / oxygen (P/O) ratio.

3. Identify the roles of the three components (F1, stalk and F0) of the ATPase synthase complex.

4. Discuss the mechanisms of action of uncoupling and oligomycin.

5. Compare the effects of uncoupling, oligomycin, complex I defect and pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency on:

a) the rate of respiratio

b) ATP synthesis

c) flux through the citric acid cycle and pyruvate dehydrogenase

d) formation of lactate in the cytosol in a cell that is metabolizing only glucose.

© Dr. Noel Sturm 2005

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