For all pathways: know the substrates, products and enzymes where ATP/ADP, GTP/GDP, NADH, NAD+, FADH2/FAD are used or produced.

 

Allosteric signals of high energy: glucose, G-6-P, Acetyl CoA, Succinyl CoA, ATP, GTP, NADH

Allosteric signals of low energy: AMP, ADP

 

Glycolysis: during times of high blood glucose levels, the Fed state; convert glucose, galactose, fructose into pyruvate.

Use the .pdf file.

Pi, NAD+, NADH and the GA-3-P to 1,3-BPG reaction

Substrate level phosphorylation (Hexokinase, PFK, PGK, PK).

Understand energy production. (use 2 ATP, produce 4 ATP)

The fate of Pyruvate: Aerobic vs Anaerobic.

 

PDH: the link between glycolysis and the citric acid cycle

Pyruvate + CoASH + NAD+ Acetyl CoA + NADH + H+ + CO2

 

Citric Acid Cycle: produces NADH, FADH2 and GTP to ENERGY!

Produces electron carriers which leads to production of ATP ( see Electron Transport).

 

PPP:

1.      Produce NADPH, used in reductive synthesis and to keep glutathione reduced so that it can scavenge H2O2.

2.      Produce Ribose-5-P for nucleic acid synthesis.

3.      Interconvert different sized sugars.

 

Gluconeogenesis: during times of low blood glucose levels, the Fasted state; produce G-6-P.

Precursors: pyruvate, PEP, lactate, alanine, glycerol

The pathway requires energy in the form of ATP.

F-1,6-BPase vs. PFK

G-6-Pase vs. Glucokinase

 

Glycogenolysis: during times of low blood glucose, break down glycogen to produce G-6-P.

Glycogen Phosphorylase: Glycogen to G-1-P

Activated by: AMP

Inhibited by: ATP, Glucose, G-6-P

PGM: G-1-P to G-6-P

 

Glycogenesis: during times of high blood glucose, store some of the glucose as glycogen

Hexokinase: Glucose to G-6-P

PGM: G-6-P to G-1-P

G-1-P Uridyltransferase: G-1-P to UDP-Glucose

Glycogen Synthase: UDP-Glucose to Glycogen

Activated by: G-6-P

 

Electron Transport: Takes electrons from NADH and FADH2 bouncing them down the chain producing H+ which drives the potential across the membrane so that the ATPase Pump produces ATP.

Know the .pdf file.

 

 © Dr. Noel Sturm 2016


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