For all pathways: know the substrates, products and enzymes where ATP/ADP, GTP/GDP, NADH, NAD+, FADH2/FAD are used or produced.


Allosteric signals of high energy: glucose, G-6-P, Acetyl CoA, Succinyl CoA, ATP, GTP, NADH

Allosteric signals of low energy: AMP, ADP


Glycolysis: during times of high blood glucose levels, the Fed state; convert glucose, galactose, fructose into pyruvate.

Use the .pdf file.

Pi, NAD+, NADH and the GA-3-P to 1,3-BPG reaction

Substrate level phosphorylation (Hexokinase, PFK, PGK, PK).

Understand energy production. (use 2 ATP, produce 4 ATP)

The fate of Pyruvate: Aerobic vs Anaerobic.


PDH: the link between glycolysis and the citric acid cycle

Pyruvate + CoASH + NAD+ Acetyl CoA + NADH + H+ + CO2


Citric Acid Cycle: produces NADH, FADH2 and GTP to ENERGY!

Produces electron carriers which leads to production of ATP ( see Electron Transport).



1.      Produce NADPH, used in reductive synthesis and to keep glutathione reduced so that it can scavenge H2O2.

2.      Produce Ribose-5-P for nucleic acid synthesis.

3.      Interconvert different sized sugars.


Gluconeogenesis: during times of low blood glucose levels, the Fasted state; produce G-6-P.

Precursors: pyruvate, PEP, lactate, alanine, glycerol

The pathway requires energy in the form of ATP.

F-1,6-BPase vs. PFK

G-6-Pase vs. Glucokinase


Glycogenolysis: during times of low blood glucose, break down glycogen to produce G-6-P.

Glycogen Phosphorylase: Glycogen to G-1-P

Activated by: AMP

Inhibited by: ATP, Glucose, G-6-P

PGM: G-1-P to G-6-P


Glycogenesis: during times of high blood glucose, store some of the glucose as glycogen

Hexokinase: Glucose to G-6-P

PGM: G-6-P to G-1-P

G-1-P Uridyltransferase: G-1-P to UDP-Glucose

Glycogen Synthase: UDP-Glucose to Glycogen

Activated by: G-6-P


Electron Transport: Takes electrons from NADH and FADH2 bouncing them down the chain producing H+ which drives the potential across the membrane so that the ATPase Pump produces ATP.

Know the .pdf file.


 © Dr. Noel Sturm 2016

Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed on unofficial pages of California State University, Dominguez Hills faculty, staff or students are strictly those of the page authors. The content of these pages has not been reviewed or approved by California State University, Dominguez Hills.